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Tristan Tzara

Krzysztof Fijalkowski

Krzysztof Fijalkowski is Professor of Visual Culture at Norwich University of the Arts, UK, and has published widely on international surrealism. As an artist and writer, he has also participated in the activities of contemporary surrealist groups. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 3 : Surrealists M – Z

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...A writer, poet and theorist, Tristan Tzara is best known as a leading protagonist of Dada. As such, he played a major role in the story of Paris Dada, a substantial context for the formation of surrealism. This relationship ended...

The Unconscious

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The question of the unconscious, of knowing how to envisage what could be functioning without our being aware of it, is omnipresent in surrealism, but neither André Breton nor any of the other main members of the group seem to have clearly...

Revolutionary Surrealism

Steven Harris

Steven Harris is associate professor in the History of Art, Design and Visual Culture programme at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. He writes on surrealism and related phenomena. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The movement known as “le surréalisme révolutionnaire” (revolutionary surrealism) had a checkered existence from May 1947, when the first meetings took place to determine whether or not a group of this name would be formed, to November...

Dada

Dawn Ades

Dawn Ades is Professor Emerita at the University of Essex. Her publications include Dada and Surrealism (1974), Photomontage (1976), Salvador Dali (1982), Andre Masson (1994), Marcel Duchamp (with Neil Cox and David Hopkins, 1999), Surrealism in Latin America: Vivisimo muerto (with Rita Eder and Gabriela Speranza) (2012). She has curated or co-curated many major exhibitions on surrealism and linked themes. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...“How is one to define . . . a movement which cannot be identified with any one personality or place, viewpoint or subject, which affects all of the arts, which has a continually shifting focus and is moreover intentionally negative...

Hats

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...In 1920, still a Dada artist in Cologne and working in his father-in-law’s hat-blocking business, the painter Max Ernst made two “peinto-peintures” (collages with over-painting) using cut-outs from millinery catalogues. One of them, The Hat...

The Primitive

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Our Integral Primitivism For surrealism the primitive was both a critical force to challenge and disrupt the values of Western civilization and part of an enduring engagement with alterity and difference. It encompassed not only...

Romania

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Summary Although there was no self-declared surrealist group in Romania until the 1940s—when Gherasim Luca, Gellu Naum, Virgil Teodorescu, Trost (whose given name Dolfi, for Adolf, he omitted from all his surrealist texts), and Paul Păun...

Marxism

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Overview Given the pervasive influence of Marxism on twentieth-century history and thought, it is no surprise that it inflects the history of surrealism. Along with psychoanalysis, Marxism represents a major point of reference: as André...

Minotaure

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The deluxe review Minotaure came into existence in 1933 as a collaborative project between the Swiss art publisher Albert Skira, the art critic E. Tériade, and the surrealist poets and painters guided by André Breton. Successor of the more...

The Book

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...There is no single definition of the surrealist book. It can be real (Les Éditions Surréalistes published over sixty books) or imaginary (André Breton dreamed of a book with pages of thick black wool and a wooden gnome for a spine...