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Tropiques

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Tropiques was a journal published in Martinique between 1941 and 1945 and edited by Aimé Césaire, Suzanne Césaire, and René Ménil. At the time Martinique was a French overseas department and thus subject to the collaborationist Vichy rule...

Gustave Moreau

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Gustave Moreau was a French painter active in the second half of the nineteenth century. His work is characterized stylistically by its ornamental detail, arabesques, and a sumptuous use of color, and thematically by its fusional approach...

Friedrich Nietzsche

Georges Sebbag

A writer with a doctorate in philosophy, Georges Sebbag participated in the activities of the surrealist group in Paris from 1964 to 1969. He has written texts on time and many books about surrealism. His most recent are Potence avec paratonnerre, Surréalisme et philosophie (2012) and Foucault Deleuze, Nouvelles Impressions du Surréalisme (2015). Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...In the nineteenth century the will was the queen of the faculties in philosophy. Nietzsche, as the genealogist of morality, made the astonishing discovery of a will that denies rather than affirms, a will that turns against itself...

André Masson

Dawn Ades

Dawn Ades is Professor Emerita at the University of Essex. Her publications include Dada and Surrealism (1974), Photomontage (1976), Salvador Dali (1982), Andre Masson (1994), Marcel Duchamp (with Neil Cox and David Hopkins, 1999), Surrealism in Latin America: Vivisimo muerto (with Rita Eder and Gabriela Speranza) (2012). She has curated or co-curated many major exhibitions on surrealism and linked themes. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 3 : Surrealists M – Z

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...André Masson was the painter closest to André Breton in the first years of surrealism, and throughout his life was on intimate terms with poets and writers, especially Michel Leiris and Georges Bataille. This is not to say that he...

Acéphale

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Acéphale was an interdisciplinary project initiated and overseen by Georges Bataille from 1936 to 1939. Comprising both an illustrated public journal of religion, sociology, and philosophy, and an esoteric secret society whose members were...

Myth

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Following the end of the Second World War, André Breton announced that surrealism would undergo a certain change in direction and occupy itself with the search for a new myth. But while the wartime and post-war periods marked surrealism...

The Unconscious

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The question of the unconscious, of knowing how to envisage what could be functioning without our being aware of it, is omnipresent in surrealism, but neither André Breton nor any of the other main members of the group seem to have clearly...

Zen Buddhism

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Zen Buddhism was one of the elements some Japanese surrealists introduced into their practice. The Dadaist poet Shinkichi Takahashi (1901–87), inspired by the “Dada Manifesto,” gradually became absorbed in a research on Zen, and some recent...

USA

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The United States of America did not loom large in the surrealist imaginary during the first decades of the movement’s existence. In the second half of the twentieth century, North America’s impact on surrealism’s history was much greater...

The Book

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...There is no single definition of the surrealist book. It can be real (Les Éditions Surréalistes published over sixty books) or imaginary (André Breton dreamed of a book with pages of thick black wool and a wooden gnome for a spine...