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Wifredo Lam

Dawn Ades

Dawn Ades is Professor Emerita at the University of Essex. Her publications include Dada and Surrealism (1974), Photomontage (1976), Salvador Dali (1982), Andre Masson (1994), Marcel Duchamp (with Neil Cox and David Hopkins, 1999), Surrealism in Latin America: Vivisimo muerto (with Rita Eder and Gabriela Speranza) (2012). She has curated or co-curated many major exhibitions on surrealism and linked themes. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 2 : Surrealists A–L

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Background A painter who later worked with ceramics, printmaking, and sculpture, Wifredo Lam was associated with surrealism from the end of the 1930s when he came to Paris following involvement in the Spanish Civil War. Lam’s artistic...

Médium: Communication Surréaliste

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Médium: communication surréaliste was the name of a surrealist post-war journal that ran in four numbers, from November 1953 to January 1955, in a print run of 3,000 copies. The review’s origins lay in the publication of a more modest...

The Caribbean

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...While surrealism took shape in Europe in the aftermath of the First World War, in the Caribbean and South America it produced a long and sustained dialogue on questions of the relationship between Europe and its colonial others...

Astrology

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Astrology is an ancient science that considers the relation between the constellation of the stars and human destiny. In its essence, its practitioners consider the universe as a single dynamic organism, with man and the stars...

Vodou

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Vodou, the religion of Haiti organized around an expansive realm of lwa (spirits), formed during the country’s French colonial period, was an important component of the anti-colonial, anti-slavery revolution of 1791–1804. Vodou’s sèvitè...

Cobra

Steven Harris

Steven Harris is associate professor in the History of Art, Design and Visual Culture programme at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. He writes on surrealism and related phenomena. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Cobra (or COBRA, but never CoBrA, which is a later invention of critics and art historians), was founded in Paris on November 8, 1948 by artists and poets from Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands, who cultivated a northern artistic...

Nature

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The surrealists engage with nature in manifold ways, as both of a response to natural objects and environments and as a critique of the very category of the natural itself. Nature is explored through various perspectives within surrealism...

The Primitive

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Our Integral Primitivism For surrealism the primitive was both a critical force to challenge and disrupt the values of Western civilization and part of an enduring engagement with alterity and difference. It encompassed not only...

VVV

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...VVV was the publication of the émigré surrealists during their wartime exile in New York. Edited by David Hare, with André Breton, Max Ernst, and later Marcel Duchamp acting as editorial advisers, it ran for four issues, with issue 2–3...

Contemporary Surrealism

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 3 : Surrealists M – Z

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...When André Breton died in September 1966 surrealism was in many ways on the crest of a wave. The group in Paris that he had steered through sometimes troubled waters for forty years was still active and drawing fresh adherents. A new group...