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Arshile Gorky

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 2 : Surrealists A–L

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Born on April 15, 1904 in Khorkom, a village in the Van province in Turkish Armenia, accompanied by his younger sister Vartoosh, young Vosdanig Adoian reached Ellis Island on February 26, 1920, among the wave of emigrants who had survived...

Automatism

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...In 1889, Pierre Janet published L’automatisme psychologique, a work based on his clinical research with patients diagnosed as hysterics. Janet had observed them exhibiting both a “primary” and a “secondary consciousness,” in such a manner...

France

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The idea of surrealism can be said to have been involuntarily, if not immaculately, conceived in 1916, when André Breton met Jacques Vaché in a military hospital in Nantes. From that moment it underwent a gestation period of eight years...