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History

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The surrealists’ relationship to history is marked by ambivalence, as evidenced for example in their protean, sometimes conflicting, assessments of historical figures. Consequently, surrealism did not produce a unified theory of history...

Critical Theory

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Overview Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse are the key figures of Critical Theory in dialogue with surrealism. For Benjamin, his serious engagement with it is made public in his writings from the 1920s until his death in 1940, whilst...

Bohuslav Brouk

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 2 : Surrealists A–L

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Bohuslav Brouk was one of the founding members of the Czechoslovak surrealist group in 1934 and was also among the first popularizers of the work of Sigmund Freud in Czechoslovakia. This entry will present an overview of Brouk’s life...

Sigmund Freud

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The surrealists, and notably André Breton, have constantly testified to a deep respect for Sigmund Freud. But this respect was not of the same nature as that for other thinkers, from Hegel to Charles Fourier. With Freud, it wasn’t a matter...

Gothic Novel

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Introduction André Breton’s condemnation of the novel, pronounced at length in the first Manifeste du surréalisme (1924), clearly didn’t extend to the English Gothic novel. Even a brief overview of the Gothic in surrealist context must...

Madness

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The surrealists’ relationship to madness was fraught with complications and complexities, so much so that it may be best summarized by Salvador Dalí’s remark that the only difference between himself and a madman was that he was not mad...

Hats

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...In 1920, still a Dada artist in Cologne and working in his father-in-law’s hat-blocking business, the painter Max Ernst made two “peinto-peintures” (collages with over-painting) using cut-outs from millinery catalogues. One of them, The Hat...

Magic

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Surrealism’s conception of magic, which became a key—if contentious—element in the activity of the French group in the post-war era, draws on both “primitive” mythology and occultism. Magic is a notoriously slippery term in scholarly...

Mannequins

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Introduced in the nineteenth century, at a time when commercial retailers were seeking to attract prospective consumers both inside and outside their shops, mannequins helped milliners, hairdressers, clothiers, and department stores promote...

Humor

Dawn Ades

Dawn Ades is Professor Emerita at the University of Essex. Her publications include Dada and Surrealism (1974), Photomontage (1976), Salvador Dali (1982), Andre Masson (1994), Marcel Duchamp (with Neil Cox and David Hopkins, 1999), Surrealism in Latin America: Vivisimo muerto (with Rita Eder and Gabriela Speranza) (2012). She has curated or co-curated many major exhibitions on surrealism and linked themes. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Almost all attempts to explain humor fail. One that doesn’t is André Breton’s Anthologie de l’humour noir (Anthology of Black Humor, 1940), not least because as an anthology it operates by example, not by exegesis. As Breton says: “There...