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  • 1940-1949
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Adversaries, Detractors and Bêtes-Noires

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The surrealists were hardly afraid of making enemies: their aggressive attitude implied it. The earliest history of the movement in France was inflected by the pugnacious attitudes of Dada, and included a brief skirmish over ownership...

Simon Watson Taylor

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 3 : Surrealists M – Z

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Surrealist and pataphysician, Simon Watson Taylor was a member of the British surrealist group during the war, proving a solid supporter of E. L. T. Mesens and Jacques Brunius during the “Del Renzio affair”. He edited the English language...

Adolphe Acker

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 2 : Surrealists A–L

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Adolphe Acker was a member of the French group from 1932 to 1951; he separated from it after having been one of initiators of “The Carrouges Affair,” accusing Breton of keeping “religious company.” His most important role...

Aimé Césaire

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 2 : Surrealists A–L

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Aimé Césaire was a preeminent figure in francophone letters who lived and worked in the French Caribbean island of Martinique. This was the “native land” (“pays natal”) of his best-known poem, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal (Notebook...

André Pieyre De Mandiargues

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 3 : Surrealists M – Z

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...In certain respects, André Pieyre de Mandiargues seems to be located apart from the surrealist movement: André Breton, for instance, reproached him with elevating literature (Mandiargues, 1975: 132). Mandiargues emphasised intentional...

Noël Arnaud

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 2 : Surrealists A–L

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Having participated in the neo-Dada group Les Réverbères from 1937 to 1941, Arnaud became one of the key members of the clandestine surrealist group in Paris, La Main à plume, during the Nazi Occupation. After the war, he was one...

Rachael Baes

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 2 : Surrealists A–L

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Painting expressionistically since the 1920s, and moving to Paris in 1940 upon the arrest then execution of her lover, the right-wing Flemish nationalist Joris van Severen, Rachael Baes turned to surrealism on meeting Paul Éluard in 1945...

Vilhelm Bjerke Petersen

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 2 : Surrealists A–L

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...A painter and theoretician, Bjerke Peterson was instrumental along with Wilhelm Freddie in developing surrealism in Denmark during the 1930s. A student at the Bauhaus in 1930–1, Bjerke Petersen was initially oriented both to abstraction...

Juan Breá

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 2 : Surrealists A–L

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...A poet and journalist and a founder of Trotskyism in Cuba, Juan Breá participated in surrealism along with Mary Low in Romania, France, and Czechoslovakia, as well as fighting in the 1933 Revolution in Cuba. He was in the POUM militia...

Carl-Henning Pedersen

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 3 : Surrealists M – Z

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Carl-Henning Pedersen a painter who was a founder member of the COBRA movement. Inspired by the Nazi exhibition of “degenerate art” he saw in Frankfurt, especially by the works of Chagall, which remained a strong influence on his art...