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  • 1910-1919
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Arthur Cravan

Georges Sebbag

A writer with a doctorate in philosophy, Georges Sebbag participated in the activities of the surrealist group in Paris from 1964 to 1969. He has written texts on time and many books about surrealism. His most recent are Potence avec paratonnerre, Surréalisme et philosophie (2012) and Foucault Deleuze, Nouvelles Impressions du Surréalisme (2015). Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Arthur Cravan was the editor of the journal Maintenant (1912–15), to which he was the only contributor, writing under the pseudonyms W. Cooper, Édouard Archinard, Robert Miradique, or Marie Lowitska. In his autobiography, which only covers...

Evil

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Evil rebels against good. It could do no less.Evil becomes a specific, if implicit, issue for the surrealists from the time they discovered the works of the Comte de Lautréamont. In 1917 their curiosity was aroused when Philippe Soupault...

Jacques Rigaut

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 3 : Surrealists M – Z

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...In many ways more of a Dadaist than a surrealist, Jacques Rigaut took to its limits the philosophical pessimism that underlay the surrealist attitude, making, as he put it, suicide his vocation. Treating life as nothing more than a sick...

Raymond Roussel

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Raymond Roussel was a poet and novelist whom André Breton described as “the greatest mesmerist of modern times” and whose work Jean Cocteau lauded as “genius in its pure state” (Bizarre, 1964). Roussel believed of himself that “My fame...

Eugène Atget

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Even though Eugène Atget didn’t belong to the same group of “conspirators of imagination” as the surrealists, his images became “appropriated” by them. He differed from them, of course. He was much older, and he died three years after...

Benjamin Fondane

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The poet Benjamin Wechsler was born in Iaşi / Jassy in what is now Moldova and belongs to that generation of Romanian intellectuals of Jewish origin whose culture comprises several realms: Ashkenazi culture through his father, an eminent...

Giorgio De Chirico

Krzysztof Fijalkowski

Krzysztof Fijalkowski is Professor of Visual Culture at Norwich University of the Arts, UK, and has published widely on international surrealism. As an artist and writer, he has also participated in the activities of contemporary surrealist groups. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...The cover of the first issue of La Révolution surréaliste (December 1924) carries three photographs of the recently inaugurated surrealist group at the Bureau de recherches surréalistes. In two (and possibly all three) of them, Giorgio de...

Francis Picabia

Krzysztof Fijalkowski

Krzysztof Fijalkowski is Professor of Visual Culture at Norwich University of the Arts, UK, and has published widely on international surrealism. As an artist and writer, he has also participated in the activities of contemporary surrealist groups. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 3 : Surrealists M – Z

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Francis Picabia is best known as a Dada painter. But while this maverick, larger than life individual often seemed to enjoy promoting as many styles and philosophies as there were moments in a day, and if his significance may lie as much...

Paul Éluard

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 2 : Surrealists A–L

Bloomsbury Academic, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Eugène-Émile Grindel, known as Paul Éluard, was the only child of a property developer active in the northern suburbs of Paris, where he grew up in a working-class family that became affluent. Although he joined the family business, Éluard...

Henri Michaux

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Henri Michaux would be greatly alarmed at being mentioned in a dictionary of surrealism, as during his lifetime his great concern was to differentiate himself from the surrealists, both Belgian and French (“We’ve both carefully avoided...