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  • 1850-1899
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Arthur Rimbaud

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Rimbaud’s influence not only on modern poetry and literature, but also on the modern sensibility has been immense even though he had a mostly wretched life and the flame of his creativity only gleamed for a period of four years or so. He...

Alfred Jarry

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Alfred Jarry was born on September 8, 1873 in Laval (Mayenne). His father, Anselme Jarry was a commercial contractor, and his mother was Caroline Quernest. Jarry received a good education at the lycées in Laval, Saint-Brieuc...

Raymond Roussel

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Raymond Roussel was a poet and novelist whom André Breton described as “the greatest mesmerist of modern times” and whose work Jean Cocteau lauded as “genius in its pure state” (Bizarre, 1964). Roussel believed of himself that “My fame...

Karl Marx

Michael Richardson

Michael Richardson is Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Beyond whatever relationship surrealism has with Marxism as a philosophical idea or with communism as a social or political movement, the person of Karl Marx—in the example he set in both his life and his work—has played a significant part...

Eugène Atget

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Even though Eugène Atget didn’t belong to the same group of “conspirators of imagination” as the surrealists, his images became “appropriated” by them. He differed from them, of course. He was much older, and he died three years after...

Gérard De Nerval

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...“In homage to Guillaume Apollinaire . . ., Soupault and I baptised the new mode of pure expression which we had at our disposal . . . by the name SURREALISM . . . To be even fairer, we could probably have taken over the word SUPERNATURALISM...

Gustave Moreau

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Gustave Moreau was a French painter active in the second half of the nineteenth century. His work is characterized stylistically by its ornamental detail, arabesques, and a sumptuous use of color, and thematically by its fusional approach...

Friedrich Nietzsche

Georges Sebbag

A writer with a doctorate in philosophy, Georges Sebbag participated in the activities of the surrealist group in Paris from 1964 to 1969. He has written texts on time and many books about surrealism. His most recent are Potence avec paratonnerre, Surréalisme et philosophie (2012) and Foucault Deleuze, Nouvelles Impressions du Surréalisme (2015). Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...In the nineteenth century the will was the queen of the faculties in philosophy. Nietzsche, as the genealogist of morality, made the astonishing discovery of a will that denies rather than affirms, a will that turns against itself...

Isidore Ducasse

The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Isidore Ducasse was born on April 4, 1846 in Montevideo (Uruguay). His father, François Ducasse, emigrated to “Amérique Méridionale” or “Banda Oriental” (as Uruguay was then called), became a clerk and then a chancellor at the French...

College of ’Pataphysics

Steven Harris

Steven Harris is associate professor in the History of Art, Design and Visual Culture programme at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. He writes on surrealism and related phenomena. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism Volume 1 : Movements

Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2019

Encyclopedia Article

...Pataphysics as a term was introduced to the public in Les Jours et les nuits (Days and Nights), a novel by Alfred Jarry published in 1897, and it was defined in Gestes et opinions du docteur Faustroll, pataphysicien (Exploits and Opinions...